Astuce pratique : comment sécuriser ses installations électriques ?

Les installations électriques ne sont jamais à l’abri de toutes sortes de désagréments (panne, court-circuit…). Pour garantir leur fiabilité, vous devez effectuer des travaux d’entretien au moins une fois par an. N’oubliez pas non plus que leur longévité en dépend. Quels sont alors les gestes à adopter pour prendre soin de ses installations électriques ?

La vérification périodique, une étape cruciale

Les vérifications périodiques ne s’adressent pas uniquement aux entreprises et aux collectivités. Vous pouvez aussi recourir à cette opération pour protéger votre habitat des dommages qui affectent souvent les installations électriques. Parmi les plus récurrentes, on cite les pannes et les courts-circuits.

Une vérification périodique se traduit généralement par un examen minutieux des installations électriques (avec ou sans démontage). Cela concerne aussi bien le tableau électrique que les équipements utilisés. Le technicien en charge de cette tâche s’assure aussi que celles-ci sont conformes aux normes en vigueur.

Pour les professionnels, la vérification des installations électriques est à renouveler tous les ans, à l’issue de laquelle ils se voient remettre un certificat Q18 ou Q19, selon les cas. Les principales vérifications périodiques obligatoires sont déterminées par des textes de loi. Le non-respect de ces réglementations est passible de sanction par les autorités compétentes. Cela peut aussi entraîner une augmentation significative du tarif de l’assurance.

Electrician

Quel type d’entretien privilégier ?

Les entreprises d’électricité et les bureaux de contrôle classifient les entretiens des installations électriques en trois catégories. Si certaines demeurent à la portée d’un individu lambda, d’autres requièrent l’intervention d’un professionnel.

Ainsi, les moyens d’entretien des installations électriques d’une maison (ou d’un immeuble) sont les suivants :

  • L’entretien réactif ;
  • L’entretien préventif ;
  • L’entretien prédictif.

On parle d’entretien réactif lorsque l’opération se déroule seulement après un incident. Généralement, on a recours à cette technique après une panne de courant, un court-circuit ou une fuite.

L’entretien préventif a pour but de minimiser les risques et les incidents qui peuvent affecter les installations électriques. Il demande pas mal de temps, car vous aurez à vérifier l’état de vos câblages et réseaux électriques, de votre tableau électrique, de votre compteur et d’autres composants.

L’entretien prédictif, quant à lui, permet de détecter au préalable les signes de défectuosité et de non-conformité. Il nécessite des connaissances avancées des normes afférentes aux installations électriques.

Effectuer un diagnostic

Prendre soin de ses installations électriques revient également à effectuer un diagnostic, et ce, de façon régulière. Vous pouvez réaliser vous-même cette tâche ou la confier à un professionnel. Dans tous les cas, cette démarche vous permettra d’évaluer l’état de vos installations et donc leur fiabilité. Elle vous sera aussi d’une grande utilité en cas de panne ou d’autres problèmes électriques.

Plus concrètement, le diagnostic consiste à mesurer les tensions de votre installation électrique et à tester la continuité du courant. Avec le matériel adéquat, vous pourrez également détecter rapidement la source de vos problèmes, qu’il s’agisse d’une fuite de courant, d’un disjoncteur qui saute, d’un court-circuit ou d’une coupure.

Le diagnostic se veut important en ce sens qu’il vous indique la solution adéquate. Par exemple, après une opération de ce genre, vous pouvez être amené à changer des fusibles, des prises électriques, des interrupteurs ainsi que d’autres équipements électriques.

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